CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME 13, ISSUE 3, MAY 2002
  1. Title: Case : control association studies of complex disease : is the search for genetic determinants a fishing expedition? : editorial
    Authors: Corfield, V.A.; Brink, P.A.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.93-95
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  2. Title: Association between an atrial natriuretic peptide gene polymorphism and normal blood pressure in subjects of African ancestry : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Nkeh, B.; Tiago, A.; Candy, G.P.; Woodiwiss, A.J.; Badenhorst, D.; Luker, F.; Netjhardt, M.; Brooksbank, R.; Libhaber, C.; Sareli, P.; Norton, G.R.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.97-101
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    Abstract: Aim. The roles of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene and the clearance receptor of the ANP (NPRC) gene in hypertensive groups of African ancestry are unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between both ANP and NPRC gene polymorphisms and hypertension in Black South Africans.
    Methods. 298 patients, diagnosed as having essential hypertension according to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements (mean daytime diastolic BP > 90 mm Hg) whilst off medication, and 278 normotensive control subjects of a similar African ancestry, were genotyped for polymorphic markers in intron 2 (which is in complete linkage disequilibrium with a potentially functional exon 1 variant) and exon 3 (which leads to the extension of ANP by two additional arginines) of the ANP gene. Moreover, 64 hypertensives and 63 controls from the same groups were genotyped for the cis-acting promoter / enhancer element of the NPRC gene.
    Results. No relationship between the exon 3 variant and either the presence (odds ratio = 1. 075) or the severity (24-hour BP) of hypertension was noted. The intron 2 polymorphism occurred at a low frequency in the control group (frequency of subjects heterozygous for the variant = 6.1%), but was almost absent in the hypertensive group (frequency of heterozygotes = 1.7%). Consequently, a relationship between a normal BP and the intron 2 variant was noted (odds ratio = 0.28, confidence interval = 0.10-0.76, p < 0.01, <1% chance of false positive results). The NPRC gene variant occurred with an equally low frequency in both the hypertensive (4.7%) and the control (4.8%) groups.
    Conclusions. The results of the present study suggest that the ANP, but not the NPRC locus contributes to BP in subjects of African ancestry.
     
  3. Title: Increased glycolysis during ischaemia mediates the protective effect of glucose and insulin in the isolated rat heart despite the presence of cardiodepressant exogenous substrates : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Van Rooyen, J.; McCarthy, J.; Opie, L.H.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.103-109
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    Abstract: Background : Exogenous insulin is known to protect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the myocardium. We investigated whether these benefits of insulin could be explained by increased glycolysis during the ishaemic period, even in the presence of potentially cardiodepressant substrates such as fatty acids and lactate. Increased cardiac output during post-ischaemic reperfusion was used as a marker of protection by insulin.
    Methods : Isolated hearts from fasted rats were subjected to 5 minutes of Langendorff perfusion followed by a 15-minute working heart pre-ischaemic perfusion with glucose (11 mmol/l), followed by a 30-minute 0. 2 ml/min low-flow Langendorff ischaemic period, using glucose (11 mmol/l) or glucose plus fatty acids (1 mmol/l), or lactate (10 mmol/l), or lactate plus glucose as substrates. During reperfusion, the hearts were again perfused with glucose. Insulin (1 mU/ml), when added, was present throughout the experimental protocol.
    Results : Post-ischaemic reperfusion cardiac output recovery was depressed in hearts perfused with glucose plus fatty acids or with lactate alone, when compared with glucose alone (p < 0.01). In each case, cardiac output improved (p < 0.01) with insulin pretreatment despite added fatty acids, or in hearts perfused with lactate alone during ischaemia. Improved cardiac output could be linked to improved glucose uptake (p < 0.05) during ischaemia and increased pre-ischaemic glycogen stores (p < 0.01). In hearts perfused with lactate alone, increased glycolysis occurred via glycogen breakdown as confirmed by increased cardiac tissue lactate levels at the end of the ischaemic period.
    Conclusion : Insulin treatment before ischaemia and throughout ischaemia and reperfusion, abolished the depressant effects of fatty acids added to glucose or of lactate alone, on reperfusion cardiac output. The consistent feature common to the protective effects of insulin in the various conditions tested was increased glycolysis, whether achieved by increased glucose uptake during the ischaemic period or by glycogen preloading. Increased glycolysis could also explain the protective effect of glucose added to lactate in the absence of insulin.
     
  4. Title: Fontan procedure for univentricular hearts : have changes in design improved outcome? : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Cilliers, A.; Gewillig, M.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.111-116
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    Abstract: The Fontan operation has undergone numerous design changes in the last 30 years, which have resulted in an improved morbidity and mortality of patients with a univentricular heart. However, good patient selection and a staged approach to the Fontan operation have also contributed greatly to a better outcome in these patients.
     
  5. Title: The occluded coronary artery in the asymptomatic patient after myocardial infarction : should it be opened? : review article
    Authors: Dalby, A.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.118-121
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    Abstract: This article reviews the evidence surrounding the 'open artery theory' : that the opening of an occluded artery in an asymptomatic patient after myocardial infarction confers survival benefits in excess of the amount of myocardium salvaged. Several mechanisms have been proposed in support of the theory, all of which remain unproven. The bulk of current knowledge about the open artery is drawn from observations on the spontaneous state of patency of the infarct-related artery and the results of ischaemia-driven intervention. The various studies indicate that the advantage of a patent infarctrelated artery is confined to groups of patients with left ventricular dysfunction or extensive (and particularly anterior) infarction. The largest database that examined the effect of the open artery did not find an independent association with survival a year after the infarct. In contrast, some smaller studies have reported deleterious effects from opening the occluded artery. The frequency of a totally occluded artery post-infarction, the lower rate of success in recanalising the vessel, and the high rate of reocclusion mediates against a policy of routinely opening the occluded vessel. The Occluded Artery Trial is comparing the outcomes in post-infarction patients with proximally occluded vessels that supply substantial amounts of myocardium randomised to either percutaneous recanalisation or medical therapy.
     
  6. Title: Papillary fibroelastoma of the tricuspid valve chordae with a review of the literature : case report
    Authors: Fabricius, A.M.; Heidrich, L.; Gutz, U.; Mohr, F.W.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.122-124
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    Abstract: Endothelial papillary fibroelastomas represent a rare entity in cardiac pathology that at times may be associated with embolisation, angina, and sudden death. We report on a case of a 46-year-old woman with a papillary fibroelastoma originating on the chordae of the tricuspid valve. The tumour was discovered incidentally using transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. The patient had an uneventful recovery and remained free of symptoms after six months.
     
  7. Title: The William Nelson ECG Quiz
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.124, 134
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  8. Title: Platelet glycoprotein 11b / 111a receptor blockade with integrilin (eptifibatide) for early postinfarction angina in a patient with coronary arterial ectasia : case report
    Authors: Grigorov, V.; Goldberg, I.; Mekel, J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.125-128
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    Abstract: A middle-aged male with multivessel proximal coronary ectasia presented with thrombosis-related acute myocardial infarction and early postinfarct angina, and was successfully treated with a combination of intravenous integrilin (eptifibatide) and unfractionated heparin. The possible aetiology, prognosis and available management strategies are discussed.
     
  9. Title: Generic anti-arrhythmic drugs : letter to the editor
    Authors: Obel, I.W.P.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.131
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  10. Title: Comment on generic anti-arrhythmic drugs : letter to the editor
    Authors: Mason, G.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.132
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  11. Title: Generic anti-arrhythmic medicines : letter to the editor
    Authors: Bradley, T.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.132-134
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  12. Title: Extending b -blocker therapy to more at-risk patients : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.136-137
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  13. Title: New approaches to stroke prevention supported by PROGRESS : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.137-138
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  14. Title: Cleveland Clinic study shows all-cause mortality benefits of aspirin : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.138
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  15. Title: Aspirin benefits in patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.139
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  16. Title: Do all NSAIDs modulate aspirin's cardioprotective effects? : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.139-140
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  17. Title: Magnesium in patients with heart failure : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.140-141
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  18. Title: Tenecteplase extends SA range of fibrinolytics : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.142
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  19. Title: Cardio news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 13, Issue 3, May
    Published: 2002
    Pages: p.144
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