CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME 14, ISSUE 5, SEP 2003
  1. Title: The human immunodeficiency virus and cardiac disease : editorial
    Authors: Makotoko, M.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.221-223
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 221 The human immunodeficiency virus pandemic has now reached proportions unimaginable 22 years ago when the first AIDS cases were reported in Los Angeles.1 At the end of 2002, UNAIDS reported 42 million adults and children to be living with HIV / AIDS worldwide. Disturbingly, the greatest burden of the disease is on sub-Saharan Africa where 70% (29.4 million) of the affected people live.2 The consequences of this pandemic are devastating and face the ordinary South African daily: chronic illness and disability with loss of income for those lucky enough to have a job, abject poverty, and death, leaving.
     
  2. Title: The cardiovascular consequences of HIV and antiretroviral therapy : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Venter, W.D.F.; Sanne, I.M.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.225-229
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    Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy has changed the face of the treatment of HIV throughout the world, converting a fatal into a chronic disease. HIV has reached disastrous levels of infection in southern Africa, and increased use of lifesaving therapy is being implemented. The antiretrovirals have a variety of metabolic side effects that have been implicated in cardiovascular disease in other populations. This article discusses the impact of HIV on southern Africa, the metabolic and cardiac complications of both HIV and antiretrovirals, and strategies for dealing with drug side effects.
     
  3. Title: The William Nelson ECG quiz
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.229, 237
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... The William Nelson ECG Quiz The answer is provided on page 237. This is the ECG of a 65-year-old woman. 'My heart beats funny'. Looking closely, it is evident that the 'atrial challenge rate' is approximately 215/min (arrows). Many P waves are buried, but measuring carefully, the P-P cycle is regular. The AV conduction is variable with some stimuli blocked 'high' and the alternating ones conducted with prolonging P-R intervals (Wenckebach block). Of interest, when the Wenckebach 'drop beat' occurs, the previously non-conducted P wave achieves transmission. Dr Alan Lindsay called this the 'leapfrog phenomenon'. This was a single ECG ..
     
  4. Title: Cardiac involvement in HIV-infected people living in Africa : a review : review article
    Authors: Magula, Nombulelo P.; Mayosi, Bongani M.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.231-237
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    Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to review and summarise the literature on the spectrum and management of cardiac disease in HIV-infected people living in Africa. We searched MEDLINE (January 1980 to February 2003), reference lists of papers, and reviews on the subject, and contacted experts working in the field for information on relevant references. The review was limited to papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals and indexed on MEDLINE. Seventeen of the 21 studies identified met the inclusion criteria for analysis.
    The studies confirmed that cardiac abnormalities are more common in HIV-infected people, compared to normal controls, and that about half of hospitalised patients and a significant proportion of patients followed up over several years develop cardiac abnormalities. The commonest HIV-related cardiac abnormalities were cardiomyopathy and pericardial disease. Tuberculosis was the major cause of large pericardial effusion in Africa. Myocarditis was the commonest pathological abnormality in HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, and non-viral opportunistic infections such as toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis may account for up to 50% of cases of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy in Africa.
    Echocardiography is indicated in HIV-positive patients with cardiac symptoms or signs. If cardiomyopathy or pericardial disease is identified, further investigation must be considered to exclude potentially treatable opportunistic infections. Further research in large numbers of patients is needed to determine the value of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of patients with HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, and to establish the place of adjuvant steroids in the treatment of HIV-associated tuberculous pericarditis.
     
  5. Title: SA Heart Association Congress, Cape Town International Convention Centre, 24 - 28 October 2003 : Heart failure : prevention, control and repair : programme and abstracts
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.241-274
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... SA HEART 2003 CONFERENCE CAPE TOWN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE http://www.saheart.org HEART FAILURE: PREVENTION, CONTROL AND REPAIR 24 - 28 OCTOBER 2003 Welcome to the South African Heart Association Congress 2003 Various interest groups, societies and individuals involved in cardiovascular healthcare and research have contributed towards putting together the programme for this meeting - the South African Heart Association, the Lipid Association of South Africa, the South African Paediatric Cardiology Association, the Cardiac Arrhythmia Association of South Africa, the South African Society for Cardiac Intervention (SASCI), Perfmed, Dr Dave Harris (cardiothoracic surgery programme) and Dr Jos du Toit (basic science programme).This collaboration ..
     
  6. Title: Perindopril (Coversyl(R)) prevents cardiovascular death and MI in coronary disease patients regardless of their cardiovascular risk : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.277-279
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 277 Perindopril* (Coversyl(r)) prevents cardiovascular death and MI in coronary disease patients regardless of their cardiovascular risk The long-acting ACE inhibitor perindopril (Coversyl(r)) significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular death and heart attacks in patients with stable coronary disease which includes patients with angina and or a previous heart attack, according to results from the landmark EUROPA study1 (EUropean trial on Reduction Of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease), announced today at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) annual meeting. EUROPA is the largest study ever conducted in patients with stable coronary disease. The study involved 12 218 ..
     
  7. Title: Cipla Medpro addresses the link between homocysteine and cardiovascular risk : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.280
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... A novel folic acid food supplement containing promethylation agents and anti-oxidants has been launched by Cipla Medpro for patients who experience difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications required for the prevention of both primary and secondary coronary artery disease. Targeting both the South African and International markets, Cipla Medpro has formed a new lifetstyle product division, Gardian Cipla to encourage healthy lifestyles such as quitting smoking, reducing stress, encouraging moderate exercise, healthy eating and weight control, as well as promoting regular check-ups. Interest in the association between homocysteine serum levels and ischaemic heart disease, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism ..
     
  8. Title: Evidence for use of low molecular weight heparin (Clexane) in STEMI : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.282
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 282 The use of enoxaparin (Clexane) as a better choice than unfractionated heparin in non-ST-segment acute coronary syndromes has been well established by expert consensus.1 Recent results of HART-II, ASSENT-3, AMISK, Baird et al., and ENTIRE-TIMI 23 are building a picture of growing evidence for using enoxaparin as a better choice, also in ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). A recent meta-analysis collected this data and evaluated benefit and risk.2 The analysis included a total of 6 069 patients, 1 108 of them treated with streptokinase (SK), 400 with t-PA, and 4 561 with tenecteplase. The rates of acute myocardial infarction ..
     
  9. Title: ACTION results of nifedipine in stable angina due next year : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.283
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 283 ACTION is the first randomised, controlled, clinical trial to assess the effects of an anti-anginal drug - nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (nifedipine GITS) - on cardiovascular event-free survival in chronic, stable angina. The trial is ongoing; 7 700 patients have been entered into the study and results will be published in 2004, after 40 000 patient-years of follow-up. It is clearly a pivotal study in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management, because it will have a major impact on future therapy. Prof Poole-Wilson, chief investigator and head of the Department of Cardiac Medicine at the Imperial College in London, noted that ..
     
  10. Title: CHARM shows benefits of Atacand(R) for symptomatic heart failure : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.284
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 284 Atacand(r) (candesartan cilexetil) an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is proven to reduce cardiovascular death and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure when given together with conventional therapy. AstraZeneca presented data at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC, Vienna, August 2003) annual meeting demonstrating candesartan cilexetil to reduce both cardiovascular deaths as well as hospital admissions for heart failure across a broad spectrum of patients with chronic heart failure. Importantly, candesartan cilexetil is the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to increase survival in chronic heart failure patients with left ventricular dysfunction, whether or not they are taking an ACE inhibitor. The CHARM ..
     
  11. Title: Rosuvastatin receives FDA approval : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.286
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 286 AstraZeneca has announced that its new cholesterol-lowering medication, rosuvastatin calcium, which has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol by up to 63%, has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of various lipid disorders, including primary hypercholesterolaemia, mixed dyslipidaemia and isolated hypertriglyceridaemia. This follows the successful advisory committee meeting held in the US in July 2003, where the committee voted unanimously to recommend the approval of rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin is the newest member of the cholesterol-lowering statin class (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) of drug therapy. In addition to its LDL (low-density ..
     
  12. Title: Cardio news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 14, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2003
    Pages: p.288
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    Abstract: Extracted from text ... 288 Unsurpassed glycaemic control made simple The Pharmaceutical Division of Merck (Pty) Ltd, marketers of the most prescribed oral anti-diabetic agent, Glucophage, proudly announces the launch of the first fixed-combination drug therapy for unsurpassed glycaemic control - Glucovance(r). Glucovance(r) is a new treatment for improving blood glucose control for patients with type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled by existing oral treatments. Glucovance(r) offers unsurpassed glycaemic control in a single tablet. Glucovance(r), the first fixed-combination drug therapy for glycaemic control, brings together two tried and tested ingredients, metformin and glibenclamide, in one tablet.
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