CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME 15, ISSUE 3, MAY 2004
  1. Title: Dyslipidaemia in South Africa : editorial
    Authors: Marais, A. David
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.105-106
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  2. Title: New development in HDL : editorial
    Authors: Chapman, M. John
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.108-109
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  3. Title: Lp(a) and apoE polymorphisms in young South African Indians with myocardial infarction : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Ranjith, N.; Pegoraro, R.J.; Rom, L.; Rajput, M.C.; Naidoo, D.P.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.111-117
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    Abstract: Summary The lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphisms have been shown to be important genetic determinants of cardiovascular risk. Their effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) is less clear, particularly in Asian Indians who are at high risk for this disease.
    The aim of this study was to examine the association of the Lp(a) promoter pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism and the apoE codon 112 and 158 genotypes in 195 young South African Indian patients (< 45 years) with myocardial infarction (MI). Results were compared with 300 healthy age-matched control subjects drawn from the same community and 107 unaffected siblings (18-45 years). In addition, fasting lipograms were performed on all patients and a detailed history of conventional risk factors and family background was obtained.
    Of the six different Lp(a) alleles detected, the 8-repeat sequence was most frequently seen. However, no difference in frequencies existed between patient and control groups. The most frequently occurring apoE genotype in the three study groups was E3/E3 (patients 71%; siblings 70%; controls 70%). A significant difference in the E3/E4 genotype was seen between patients and controls (23% vs 14%; p = 0.018) and between siblings and controls (24% vs 14%; p = 0.027). These patients were also more likely to have significantly higher lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (p = 0.005 and 0.045, respectively). No association was observed between any of the Lp(a) or apoE genotypes and conventional risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, obesity or a family history of CHD.
    In conclusion, the apoE3/E4 genotype is strongly associated with the incidence of myocardial infarction in young South African Indians. This genotype also adversely affects LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, both of which contribute to premature atherosclerosis. In contrast, the Lp(a) pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism does not appear to have any aetiological role in MI in this population.
     
  4. Title: A single-centre retrospective observational study to evaluate the change in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in hyperlipidaemic patients switched from atorvastatin to simvastatin : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Raal, F.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.118-123
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    Abstract: The clinical effects of switching from one HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor (atorvastatin) to another therapeutic agent within the same class (simvastatin) were examined in this observational study. Levels of total-C, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides from 100 patients were compared before and after switching, and the maintenance, improvement or loss of lipid control was assessed. There was a significant increase in total-C and triglycerides (p < 0.05) following the switch from atorvastatin to simvastatin. A number of patients showed > 10% variation in lipid levels after switching. The high intrapatient variation seen in this study strongly suggests that therapeutic substitution is associated with an unpredictable response in plasma lipid levels and their control. This would have practical implications for physicians who are considering a switch of this nature.
     
  5. Title: Cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic Nigerians with clinical diabetic nephropathy : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Alebiosu, C.O.; Odusan, O.; Familoni, O.B.; Jaiyesimi, A.E.A.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.124-128
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    Abstract: This study aimed to assess the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with type 2 clinical diabetic nephropathy, since in diabetic subjects, the excess mortality in cardiovascular events is primarily related to nephropathy.
    The study group consisted of 162 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and persistent proteinuria, and the control group was 80 type 2 diabetic subjects without nephropathy. In the study group there were 81 male and 81 female subjects whose mean age was 53.4 + 6.3 years. There was no significant consumption of alcohol and cigarette use in the population. The mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.97 and 0.96 in male and female subjects, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the subjects was 25.5 + 5.2 (males: 24.4 + 4.3, females: 27.2 + 5.5). A total of 106 subjects, made up of 45 male (27.8%) and 61 female (37.7%) subjects, were hypertensive as compared with 16 controls (20%). There was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) between the obese and non-obese subjects. One hundred and thirty three subjects (82.1%) had serum total cholesterol below 200 mg% as compared with 74 (92.5%) in the control. Seventy-eight subjects (48.1%) had left ventricular hypertrophy. Males had a higher tendency of developing left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.04). Stroke and peripheral vascular disease respectively occurred more commonly in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects with nephropathy [7 (4%) and 44 (27.2%)] compared to type 2 diabetic subjects without nephropathy [0 (0%) and 9 (11.3%)] (p < 0.05).
    We found that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Nigerian subjects with clinical diabetic nephropathy.
     
  6. Title: Progressive familial heart block type II (PFHBII) : a clinical profile from 1977 to 2003 : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Fernandez, P.; Corfield, V.A.; Brink, P.A.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.129-132
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    Abstract: An evaluation of a 38-year-old Caucasian woman, who was referred to Tygerberg Hospital (Western Cape Province, RSA) with Wenckebach second-degree or possibly complete atrioventricular (AV) block that had progressed from first-degree AV block, identified a family history of the cardiac conduction system disorder progressive familial heart block type II (PFHBII). This prompted a retrospective clinical review of the subjects described in the original study, as well as additional family members who had not been examined in the original study. Progression of clinical features was observed, but more importantly, PFHBII was clinically redefined as an AV nodal disorder, which may progress to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
     
  7. Title: Isolated right ventricular infarction mimicking anterior myocardial infarction presenting with cardiogenic shock : case report
    Authors: Abelson, Mark
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.133-135
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    Abstract: This is a rare case of an isolated right ventricular infarction (RVI), presenting with cardiogenic shock and an electrocardiograph (ECG) mimicking a large anterior myocardial infarction. The patient was treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary intervention to a sub-totally occluded co-dominant right coronary artery (RCA).
     
  8. Title: The William Nelson ECG quiz
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.135, 142
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  9. Title: Cardiac amyloidosis presenting as pseudo-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy : case report
    Authors: Papachan, Alexander; Sliwa, Karen; Gildenhuys, A.; Essop, Rafique
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.136-138
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    Abstract: Both cardiac amyloidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may result in excessive hypertrophy of the myocardium, which can be seen on echocardiography. While in most patients the two conditions are easily differentiated, we present in this report a case of amyloidosis that mimicked hypertrophic cardiomyopathy so closely that it required endomyocardial biopsy to establish the diagnosis.
     
  10. Title: Cardiovascular complications of acute cocaine poisoning : a clinical case report : case report
    Authors: Grigorov, V.; Goldberg, Lenard; Foccard, Jean Paul
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.139-142
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    Abstract: We present a case of an accidental cocaine overdose with various cardiovascular and neurological complications and ECG features of Brugada syndrome. It is imperative that clinicians know how to recognise and manage the symptoms of cocaine overdose because of the exceedingly rapid progression of the 'cocaine reaction' to a fatal outcome.
     
  11.  Title: Nifedipine GITS : perspectives beyond blood pressure : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.145-146
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  12. Title: PERSUADE ... (a EUROPA sub-study) ... results : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.146
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  13. Title: EUROPA : clinical benefits, clinical promise : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.147
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  14. Title: Lipitor reduces total cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.147-148
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  15. Title: Benefits of TRACE maintained over 10-year follow-up period : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.148
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  16. Title: Peripheral arterial disease - towards extended awareness and improved prevention of ischaemic events : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.150-151
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  17. Title: Cardio news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 15, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2004
    Pages: p.152
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Effects of age on systemic inflamatory response syndrome and results of coronary bypass surgery

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