CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME 16, ISSUE 3, MAY 2005
  1. Title: What do we know about the burden of cardiovascular disease in South Africa? : editorial
    Authors: Bradshaw, Debbie
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.140-141
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  2. Title: The William Nelson ECG quiz
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.141, 157
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  3. Title: Adenosine deaminase activity - more than a diagnostic tool in tuberculous pericarditis : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Reuter, Helmuth; Burgess, Lesley J.; Carstens, Machteld E.; Doubell, Anton F.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.143-147
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    Abstract: Aim: To improve the understanding of factors that influence adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in large pericardial effusions.
    Methods: A prospective study was carried out at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, South Africa. Patients underwent echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis. ADA activity, as well as biochemistry, haematology, cytology, and in some cases, histology, were determined. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was assessed in all patients.
    Results: Two hundred and thirty-three patients presented to Tygerberg Hospital with large pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocentesis. Tuberculous pericarditis accounted for 162 effusions (69.5%). An ADA cut-off level of 40 U/l resulted in a test sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic efficiency of 84.0%, 80.0%, 91.0%, 66.0% and 83.0%, respectively. Pericardial exudates with an ADA activity > 40 U/l were associated with increased total leukocyte and neutro - phil counts. Patients with tuberculous pericarditis and ADA > 40 U/l also had increased lymphocyte counts. Pericardial ADA activity < 30 U/l was associated with severe depletion of CD4 cell counts in HIV-positive patients. ADA levels were higher in cases with histological evidence of granulomatous inflammation than in cases with serofibrinous pericarditis.
    Conclusions: An ADA cut-off level of 40 U/l results in best diagnostic test results. ADA production appears to be influenced by factors associated with the antituberculous immune response.
     
  4. Title: A two-year, single-group experience with rotational atherectomy : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Grigorov, V.; Jorgova, J.; Goldberg, L.; Roodt, A.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.148-151
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    Abstract: Rotational atherectomy was introduced with a view to approaching percutaneously, cases that were suboptimal or unsuitable for conventional percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In this article we present our findings for a period of two years starting in April 2001, when 60 procedures were performed on 54 patients. We found the procedure to be successful in B2 and C type lesions. It is our opinion that the lower burr-to-artery ratio used in our cases was significantly beneficial in decreasing immediate complications related to the procedure. Complimentary PTCA and stenting improved the angiographic end result. Using this strategy, we have achieved very acceptable clinical results.
     
  5. Title: Coagulation gene polymorphisms as risk factors for myocardial infarction in young Indian Asians : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Pegoraro, R.J.; Ranjith, N.; Rom, L.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.152-157
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    Abstract: Background: The relationship between pro-coagulant gene polymorphisms, clinical features and the risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indian Asian subjects resident in South Africa has been investigated.
    Methods: The prevalence of the b-fibrinogen -455G/A and -148C/T, and the factor VII 10bp 5' promoter insertion/deletion and R353Q polymorphisms were examined in 195 unrelated Indian Asian patients (< 45 years) who presented with myocardial infarction (MI). Results were compared with those from 107 unaffected siblings (18-45 years) and 300 healthy age- and race-matched control subjects.
    Results: Overall, none of the polymorphisms examined here showed any association with MI. However, when stratified according to obesity, patients with a BMI > 30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher frequency of the b-fibrinogen variant alleles, compared with non-obese patients (19% vs 9%; p = 0.025) and controls (19% vs 9%; p = 0.003). Furthermore, the highest frequency of variant alleles occurred in obese smokers (24%), compared with 4% in non-obese non-smokers (p = 0.003) and 9% in control subjects (p < 0.001). The factor VII R353Q and promoter insertion variants, on the other hand, were associated with higher HDL and lower LDL levels (p = 0.034 and 0.04, respectively).
    Conclusion: In young Indian Asians who are both obese and smoke, the b-fibrinogen genetic polymorphisms -455G-->A and -148C-->T, which are in linkage disequilibrium, are significant risk factors for the development of MI. Factor VII genetic variants, namely the 10bp promoter insertion/deletion and R353Q polymorphisms, may possibly play a protective role through their association with elevated HDL and low LDL levels, respectively.
     
  6. Title: Correlates of left atrial size in Nigerian hypertensives : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Adebiyi, Adewole A.; Aje, Akinyemi; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ojji, Dike B.; Oladapo, Olulola O.; Dada, Adekola; Falase, Ayodele O.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.158-161
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    Abstract: Aim: Left atrial (LA) enlargement is a common finding in systemic hypertension and is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation and stroke. We determined the correlates of LA enlargement in a Nigerian hypertensive population.
    Methods: A total of 361 hypertensives were recruited for echocardiography. Enlarged left atrium was defined as LA diameter > 4.2 cm in men or > 3.8 cm in women.
    Results: Enlarged LA was found in 15.8% of the hypertensives (19.2% in females and 12.5% males). Compared with those without dilated LA, subjects with dilated LA had higher age, body mass index, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular wall thickness, lower ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In multivariate analysis, body mass index and left ventricular (LV) mass were the major predictors of LA size, whereas dilated LA was related to age, female gender and LV mass or the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in logistic regression analysis.
    Conclusion: Left atrial size in Nigerian hypertensives is influenced by age, female gender, left ventricular mass and body mass index.
     
  7. Title: The role of contrast-enhanced spiral CT imaging versus chest X-rays in surgical therapeutic concepts and thoracic aortic injury : a 29-year Swiss retrospective analysis of aortic surgery : review article
    Authors: Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.; Duwe, Jan; Eckstein, Friedrich; Stoupis, Christoforos; Schoenfeld, Helge; Zimmermann, Heinz; Carrel, Thierry P.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.162-165
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    Abstract: Background: Blunt chest trauma accounts for 90% of chest trauma in the civilian population in Europe and the United States and causes 20% of trauma-related deaths. Missed aortic injuries can rupture and lead to subsequent death of the patient.
    Materials and methods: This retrospective study compared two different imaging strategies, chest X-rays compared to additional contrast-enhanced spiral CT imaging, in patients suffering from blunt thoracic trauma. The study also questioned whether the additional information obtained from CT scans changed further surgical therapeutic concepts or the decision for immediate surgery.
    Results: Between 1971 and 2001, 39 patients were detected with thoracic trauma and aortic lesions. Of the 28 patients who underwent initial CT scanning, 12 (31%) had an emergency thoracotomy (sternotomy) performed on them, which the other 16 did not require. In four (10%) of these 16 patients, the aorta was stabilised and a possible leak was covered with endovascular stenting. In another eight (21%) of them, the concomitant injuries were initially treated and, following regular check-ups, an elective repair of the aortic lesion was performed after a number of months. In four (10%) patients with intramural haematomas or minor leakage, no intervention was necessary. Eleven (28%) patients did not have a chest CT scan on admission and the diagnosis of a contained aortic rupture was missed. They were readmitted to the hospital between four months and 29 years after the initial accident with symptomatic posttraumatic pseudo-aneurysm of the thoracic aorta.
    Conclusions: We believe that helical CT evaluation of the mediastinum should be performed in all patients who undergo blunt thoracic trauma, irrespective of chest radiographic findings. Missed diagnoses can occur after angiography or ultrasound alone, and false-positive diagnoses can also be made. Following the current litera ture, we therefore recommend a primary routine chest CT scan in all patients with a history of motor vehicle accident (MVA) at a speed of more than 16 km/h (unrestrained) or 48 km/h (restrained). Furthermore, we recommend a CT scan even if the height fallen was as little as seven metres.
     
  8. Title: Should l change to OPCAB? : review article
    Authors: Swart, Marius J.; Joubert, Gina
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.166-170
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    Abstract: Much is written about the benefits of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). Is it applicable to all practices? Does that mean we all need to change to OPCAB? The surgical literature appears to have flaws with regard to providing answers. In striving for evidence-based medicine, one could integrate clinical data with external best evidence or do proper power calculations to determine study sizes. In a local, retrospective, observational study, 535 patients had a CABG done with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest. Five hundred and seven patients were considered appropriate for analysis. Mortality was seven (1.4%), the prevalence of myocardial infarction four (0.8%), renal dialysis was four (0.8%) and stroke six (1.2%). Eighty (16%) patients required homologous blood transfusions. The median length of hospital stay was five days.
    If a local, randomised, controlled study was to be conducted to confirm an improvement with OPCAB, a large number of patients would be needed. For a 12.5% reduction in an event rate presently at 0.8%, 262 000 patients would be necessary. For a 50% reduction in an event rate presently at 4.0%, 2 300 patients should be recruited. The local prevalence rate is very low and the number of patients required for a series is too high. The supremacy of OPCAB for this practice is therefore not established.
     
  9. Title: Drugs for the Heart, Lionel H. Opie, Bernard J. Gersh : book review
    Authors: Visagie, G.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.171
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  10. Title: Identifying high-risk patients with acute dyspnoea in the emergency setting : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.172
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  11. Title: Ezetimibe offers new opportunity to lower LDL-C to target levels : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.174
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  12. Title: FDA approves losartan for stroke prevention in hypertensive patients with LVH : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.176
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  13. Title: Plaque composition changes on rosuvastatin treatment : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.176
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  14. Title: Phytosterols DT - a natural option for moderately raised cholesterol : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.178-179
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  15. Title: Lovastatin - candidate for non-prescription availability in US market : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.179-180
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  16. Title: Diovan has EU approval for the treatment of heart attack survivors : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.180
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  17. Title: Benefit of clopidogrel in recent myocardial infarction trials : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.182-183
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  18. Title: Aspirin - no effect on primary prevention of MI or CV death in women : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.184
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  19. Title: Improvement in small artery function in type 2 diabetes following candesartan cilexitil treatment : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.184
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  20. Title: Moxonidine suitable for hypertensive menopausal women with metabolic syndrome : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.186
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  21. Title: Cardio news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 16, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.188
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A preliminary review of warfarin toxicity in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa

Published: 21 June 2017
 
Perceptions of radiation safety training among interventionalists in South Africa

Published: 24 May 2017
 
Effects of age on systemic inflamatory response syndrome and results of coronary bypass surgery

Published: 23 May 2017
 
Pilot study of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in northern and southern Cameroonians

Published: 17 May 2017
 
Clinical profile, management and outcomes of patients with pulmonary embolism: a retrospective tertiary centre study in Angola

Published: 17 May 2017
 
Role of melatonin in glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes from insulin-resistant Wistar rats

Published: 17 May 2017
 
Atorvastatin inhibits cholesterol-induced caspase-3 cleavage through down-regulation of p38 and up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the rat carotid artery

Published: 10 May 2017
 
Relationship between coronary tortuosity and plateletcrit coronary tortuosity and plateletcrit

Published: 26 April 2017
 
Clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease seen at a tertiary hospital setting in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Published: 20 April 2017
 
 
Electrocardiographic abnormalities in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in south-east Nigeria

Published: 24 March 2017
 
 
Medication adherence among cardiac patients in Khartoum State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study

Published: 24 March 2017
 
 
An unusual case of aorta–right atrial tunnel with windsock aneurysm: imaging, diagnosis and treatment

Published: 15 March 2017
 
 
Prevalence of rheumatic valvular heart disease in Rwandan school children: echocardiographic evaluation using the World Heart Federation criteria

Published: 1 March 2017
 
 
Factors affecting interest in cardiothoracic surgery among junior surgical residents in Nigeria

Published: 1 March 2017
 
 
New World’s old disease: cardiac hydatid disease and surgical principles

Published: 20 February 2017
 
 
The prevalence and radiological findings of pulmonary embolism in HIV-positive patients referred for computed tomography pulmonary angiography in the Western Cape of South Africa

Published: 15 February 2017
 
 
Right ventricular strain as predictor of pulmonary complications in patients with femur fracture

Published: 01 February 2017
 
 
Atrial myxoma: a rare cause of hemiplegia in children

Published: 09 December 2016
 
 
Telmisartan decreases microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following coronary artery bypass grafting

Published: 10 November 2016
 
 
Left ventricular haematoma mimicking lateral wall myocardial infarction secondary to percutaneous coronary intervention

Published: 10 November 2016
 
 
Symptom-to-balloon time and myocardial blush grade are predictors of left ventricular remodelling after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention

Published: 27 October 2016
 
 
Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on North African children’s heart rate and oxy-haemoglobin saturation at rest and during sub-maximal exercise

Published: 21 October 2016
 
 
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors in ischaemic heart disease

Published: 09 September 2016
 
 
Prevalence of selected cardiometabolic risk factors among adults in urban and semi-urban hospitals in four sub-Saharan African countries

Published: 22 August 2016
 
 
Assessment of indirect inflammatory markers in patients with myocardial bridging

Published: 19 August 2016
 
 
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