CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME 17, ISSUE 3, MAY 2006
  1. Title: The South African Hypertension Guideline 2006 : a major step forward for improved management of hypertension : editorial
    Authors: Rayner, Brian
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.109-110
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  2. Title: Consequence of resistance training on body composition and coronary artery disease risk : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Shaw, I.; Shaw, B.S.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.111-116
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    Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a substantial cause of death and disability in South Africa and Western society, with research showing obesity to be one of the most common CAD risk factors. Furthermore, obesity is speculated to be the fastest-growing CAD risk factor and to become the most prevalent CAD risk factor. Research on obesity is therefore essential, and we propose some preventative measures that will hopefully limit the expansion of this risk factor for CAD. Most of the literature has focused primarily on aerobic modes of exercise. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether resistance training would improve body composition.
    Twenty-eight males were matched by age, percentage of body fat and waist-to-hip ratio and randomly assigned either to a resistance-training group (n = 13) or a control group (n = 15). Each subject's body mass, percentage body fat, lean mass, fat mass, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index were assessed both pre- and post-experimentally following the eight-week experimental period. The resistance-training group trained three times weekly at 60% of their one-repetition maximum using nine resistance exercises. Each exercise was performed for three sets of 15 repetitions each, whereas the control group did not exercise over this period.
    The dependent t-test indicated that resistance training significantly changed body mass, percentage of body fat, lean mass and fat mass (all had a p-value of 0.00; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the independent t-test demonstrated that lean mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat were statistically significantly different between the control and resistancetraining groups.
    In conclusion, resistance training improved four of the six measured body composition variables, therefore implying that resistance training does in fact improve the majority of body composition variables and therefore CAD risk.
     
  3. Title: The William Nelson ECG quiz
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.116, 145
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  4. Title: Vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Sclerocarya birrea (A Rich) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) stem bark aqueous extract in rats : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Ojewole, John A.O.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.117-123
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    Abstract: The vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Sclerocarya birrea stem bark aqueous extract have been examined in rat experimental paradigms. Cumulative additions of S birrea stem bark aqueous extract (SBE 12.5-200 mg/ml) to the bath fluid induced concentration-dependent relaxations of endothelium- containing normotensive Wistar rat isolated aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA). The vasorelaxant effect of SBE on endothelium-containing isolated aortic rings was annulled by removal of the functional endothelium (in endothelium-denuded normotensive Wistar rat isolated aortic rings), or by pretreatment of the endothelium-containing isolated aortic rings with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS).
    Bolus intravenous administrations of the plant extract (SBE 25-400 mg/kg iv) caused transient, dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) reductions in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of anaesthetised normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The findings of this experimental animal study suggest that S birrea stem bark aqueous extract relaxes normotensive Wistar rat aortic vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO); and that the hypotensive effect of the plant extract is likely to be mediated, at least in part, through nitric oxide synthase activation and subsequent nitric oxide release.
     
  5. Title: Cryopreservation of platelets at the end of their conventional shelf life leads to severely impaired in vitro function : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Schoenfeld, Helge; Griffin, Michael; Muhm, Manfred; Doepfmer, Ulrich R.; Von Heymann, Christian; Goktas, Onder; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Radtke, Hartmut
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.125-129
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    Abstract: Storage time for platelet concentrates (PCs) is limited to five days due to 'aging' of the platelets and an increasing risk of bacterial proliferation. Storage time can be prolonged by cryopreservation. We investigated in vitro function of six consecutive PCs at the end of their conventional shelf life followed by cryopreservation for 24 hours. Spontaneous, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced and collagen-induced activation before and after cryopreservation were determined by flow cytometry. Additionally, ADP- and collagen-induced aggregation was measured. After cryopreservation two-thirds of the platelets were spontaneously activated, twice as many as before the procedure (p < 0.001). ADP-induced activation was significantly reduced (p = 0.014). Collagen-induced activation was unchanged. Aggregation stimulated by ADP and collagen was significantly reduced (p = 0.005 and p = 0.009, respectively). Our results show severely impaired in vitro function of platelets after storage at 22°C for five days followed by cryopreservation. Cryopreservation of PCs after a storage time of five days cannot be recommended.
     
  6. Title: Cardiovascular disease and hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal women : letter to the editor
    Authors: Rapeport, Naomi
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.124
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  7. Title: Comprehensive assessment of left ventricular pseudo-aneurysms with magnetic resonance imaging : review article
    Authors: Smedema, J.P.; Bekkers, S.C.; Snoep, G.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.130-134
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    Abstract: In a small number of patients, myocardial infarction, trauma, infection or cardiac surgery are complicated by incomplete wall rupture and pseudo-aneurysm formation. We describe the advances made in the non-invasive assessment of this condition with the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discuss the value of specific MRI techniques for comprehensive structural and functional cardiac assessment.
     
  8. Title: Homocysteine in vascular disease : an emerging clinical perspective : review article
    Authors: Jacobs, Peter; Wood, Lucille; Bick, Rodger
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.135-139
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    Abstract: Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombo-embolism has been attributed to pathophysiological lesions in the vessel wall, or altered blood contents or flow through the lumen. Logically these fall into the category of a high-shear system, as opposed to the rather different circumstances in slowly moving columns of blood. The re-evaluation of this belief has been prompted by acknowledgement that there is currently a shift in emphasis. Recently we have recognised a common central factor in the internal dysfunction of the vessel that precedes and so initiates thrombocyte adhesion.
     
  9. Title: Analysis of a medical aid administrator database for costs and utilisation of benefits by patients claiming for lipid-lowering agents : review article
    Authors: Moodley, Indres
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.140-145
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    Abstract: Objective: This is a descriptive study to analyse overall costs of medical scheme beneficiaries using lipid-lowering agents. The purpose of the analysis was to relate claims for lipid-lowering agents to utilisation and costs of drugs and services.
    Methods: An analysis was undertaken of physician visits, cardiac-related disease co-morbidities and hospitalisation. Any medication or dose changes were also analysed, including those after hospitalisation.
    Results: A total of 100 691 patients were identified, clustered around the age groups of 40 to 70 years, of whom 60% were males. The cohort consisted ethnically mainly of whites (68%), with an even distribution (6-9%) of Asian, black and Coloured subjects. Of these patients, approximately a third had recorded co-morbidities, mainly hypertension (58.6%) and the more prevalent cardiovascular (ischaemic heart disease, coronary artery disease) and metabolic disorders. While drug costs accounted for approximately 28% of total costs, hospitalisation cost (66%) was by far the greatest cost driver. Whereas drug costs appeared to have decreased over the period of analysis, hospitalisation costs had increased dramatically. Patients appeared to be stable on initial prescribed drug therapy with a relatively low incidence of switching (< 25%), mainly to the generic, simvastatin. Adherence to statin therapy was remarkably high at 85%.
    Conclusions: Despite the manifold shortcomings, mainly due to the lack of ICD10 coding and information on critical clinical parameters, the study gives some brief insights into the burden of managing patients with cardiovascular diseases and provides a basis for improving future studies.
     
  10. Title: Isolated left ventricular non-compaction as a cause of thrombo-embolic stroke : a case report and review : case report
    Authors: Ker, J.; Van der Merwe, C.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.146-147
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    Abstract: Isolated left ventricular non-compaction is the result of incomplete myocardial morphogenesis, leading to persistence of the embryonic myocardium. The condition is recognised by an excessively prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular recesses of the left ventricle. These intertrabecular recesses are prone to thrombus formation, with resultant embolic sequelae. We describe a case of cerebral thrombo-embolism in a young woman due to isolated left ventricular non-compaction.
     
  11. Title: Thoracic pain and T-wave inversion : images in cardiology
    Authors: Marijon, Eloi; Vilanculos, Alda; Jani, Dinesh; Tivane, Adriano; Hausse-Mocumbi, Ana O.; Ferreira, Beatriz
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.148-149
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  12. Title: Coronary Artery Disease : Risk Promoters, Pathophysiology and Prevention, 1st edition, Gundu H.R. Rao : book review
    Authors: Naidoo, D.P.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.149-150
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  13. Title: Adverse events analysis in ACTION study proves nifedipine GITS safety in stable, symptomatic angina patients : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.151
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  14. Title: Central arterial pressure shows link with effectiveness of nebivolol in SENIORS study : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.152
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  15. Title: TROPHY : treating 'prehypertension' may be beneficial : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.155
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  16. Title: Accumulation of risk factors in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.156
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  17. Title: Rosuvastatin helped more high-risk patients reach NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III targets : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.156, 158
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  18. Title: Regeneration of new renal tissue following lisinopril treatment : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, Vol 17, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2006
    Pages: p.158
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