CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME 19, ISSUE 3, MAY 2008
  1. Title: Fixed drug combination in hypertension and hyperlipidaemia in the developing world : editorial
    Authors: Seedat, Y.K.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 124-126
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    Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In 2002, it was estimated to have caused over 15 million deaths, comprising more than a quarter of all deaths that year. About 7.2 million of these deaths were due to ischaemic heart disease and 5.5 million were due to cerebrovascular disease. By 2020 it is estimated that there will be 25 million deaths from cardiovascular disease annually and that these deaths will comprise 37% of all deaths that year.
     
  2. Title: Cardiovascular effects of mollic acid glucoside, a 1α-hydroxycycloartenoid saponin extractive from Combretum molle R Br ex G Don (Combretaceae) leaf : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Ojewole, J.A.O.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 128-134
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    Abstract: The cardiovascular effects of mollic acid glucoside (MAG), a 1α-hydroxycycloartenoid saponin extractive from Combretum molle R Br ex G Don (Combretaceae) leaf, have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The plant extract (MAG, 5-80 µg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) negative inotropic and negative chronotropic effects on guinea pig isolated electrically driven left, and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. MAG also significantly reduced (p < 0.05-0.001) or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the rhythmic, spontaneous contractions of portal veins isolated from healthy, normal Wistar rats.
    Like acetylcholine (ACh, 10-8-10-5 M), the plant extract (5-80 µg/ml) produced concentration-related relaxations of rat isolated endothelium-containing thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 10-10-10-5 M). The vasorelaxant effects of MAG in the aortic rings were markedly inhibited or annulled by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10-5 M), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Furthermore, MAG (2.5-40 mg/kg iv) caused dose-related, transient but significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the systemic arterial blood pressures and heart rates of anaesthetised normotensive and hypertensive rats.
    The results of this laboratory animal study indicate that MAG caused bradycardia, vasorelaxation and hypotension in the mammalian experimental models used. The vasorelaxant action of MAG was endothelium dependent, and was therefore possibly dependent on the synthesis and release of nitric oxide (NO). The findings of this study suggest that Combretum molle leaf may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in essential hypertension and in certain cases of cardiac dysfunctions in rural African communities.
     
  3. Title: Prevention and control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease : the Cuban experience (1986-1996-2002) : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Nordet, P.; Lopez, R.; Duenas, A.; Sarmiento, L.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 135-140
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    Abstract: Background : Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are still major medical and public health problems mainly in developing countries. Pilot studies conducted during the last five decades in developed and developing countries indicated that the prevention and control of RF/RHD is possible. During the 1970s and 1980s, epidemiological studies were carried out in selected areas of Cuba in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of RF/RHD, and to test several long-term strategies for prevention of the diseases.
    Methods : Between 1986 and 1996 we carried out a comprehensive 10-year prevention programme in the Cuban province of Pinar del Rio and evaluated its efficacy five years later. The project included primary and secondary prevention of RF/RHD, training of personnel, health education, dissemination of information, community involvement and epidemiological surveillance. Permanent local and provincial RF/RHD registers were established at all hospitals, poli-clinics and family physicians in the province. Educational activities and training workshops were organised at provincial, local and health facility level. Thousands of pamphlets and hundreds of posters were distributed, and special programmes were broadcast on the public media to advertise the project.
    Results : There was a progressive decline in the occurrence and severity of acute RF and RHD, with a marked decrease in the prevalence of RHD in school children from 2.27 patients per 1 000 children in 1986 to 0.24 per 1 000 in 1996. A marked and progressive decline was also seen in the incidence and severity of acute RF in five- to 25-year-olds, from 18.6 patients per 100 000 in 1986 to 2.5 per 100 000 in 1996. There was an even more marked reduction in recurrent attacks of RF from 6.4 to 0.4 patients per 100 000, as well as in the number and severity of patients requiring hospitalisation and surgical care. Regular compliance with secondary prophylaxis increased progressively and the direct costs related to treatment of RF/RHD decreased with time. The implementation of the programme did not incur much additional cost for healthcare. Five years after the project ended, most of the measures initiated at the start of the programme were still in place and occurrence of RF/RHD was low.
     
  4. Title: Biological variation of ischaemia-modified albumin in healthy subjects : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Govender, R.; De Greef, J.; Delport, R.; Becker, P.J.; Vermaak, W.J.H.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 141-144
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    Abstract: Aim : Ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), as measured by the albumin-cobalt binding (ACB) test®, has been cleared by the US Food and Drug administration as a biomarker to exclude the presence of myocardial ischaemia in patients. Although there are a number of published studies detailing the clinical utility of IMA, data on the biological variation of IMA are still lacking. In this study we determined the analytical and biological variance components of ischaemia-modified albumin, and compared the distribution of IMA values in our patient population to those provided by the kit manufacturer.
    Methods : IMA was determined once a week for five consecutive weeks on a cohort of healthy subjects using a colorimetric method, the ACB test® on a Roche modular analyser.
    Results : The analytical coefficient of variation (CVA) was 5%, and the within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) biological variations were 3 and 7%, respectively. Analysis of the repeated measures with gender and race (black and Caucasian) as between-subject factors, and weeks (1-5) as the within-subject factor showed that gender had no significant effect on circulating IMA concentrations (p = 0.3146), whereas race did have a significant effect (p = 0.0062). A significant (p = 0.0185) interaction was observed between gender and race.
    Conclusion : The ACB test® could bring a new dimension to the care and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Further studies for normal population distributions by gender and ethnicity, and an optimum cut-off value appear to be required.
     
  5. Title: William Nelson ECG Quiz : cardiovascular topic
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 144, 154
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    Abstract: This is the ECG of a 54-year-old woman with SVT.
     
  6. Title: Cardiac disease in pregnancy : cardiovascular topic
    Authors: Nqayana, T.; Moodley, J.; Naidoo, D.P.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 145-151
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    Abstract: This study was a retrospective review of patient charts of a relatively large number of patients with cardiac disease in pregnancy in a developing country. Ninety-five patients were evaluated; the majority (n = 36) were in the age group 21-25 years. Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest aetiology; eight women required balloon mitral valvuloplasty and one had a valve replacement at 32 weeks' gestation. There were no maternal deaths but morbidity was high; 13 patients were admitted in cardiac failure, nine had atrial fibrillation and three required intensive-care management. There were 86 live births of the 97 deliveries.
    Cardiac disease in pregnancy is associated with high maternal morbidity and adverse foetal outcomes; this was related to late presentation and problems with anticoagulation. Clinical assessment remains a key factor in timeous referral and appropriate investigations.
     
  7. Title: Myocardial infarction secondary to premature coronary artery disease as the initial major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus : case report
    Authors: Kassaian, S.E.; Goodarzynejad, H.; Darabian, S.; Basiri, Z.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 152-154
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    Abstract: A 32-year-old woman admitted to the emergency department was diagnosed with acute anterior myocardial infarction, treated with thrombolytics and referred for angiography on the basis of her age. The patient was then referred for angioplasty with the diagnosis of an atherosclerotic lesion in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Successful treatment of the lesion by primary stenting ensued. Laboratory findings revealed a state of hypercoagulability as well as some collagen fibre disease. The final diagnosis, confirmed by a rheumatologist, was systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with premature atherosclerosis of the LAD in addition to hypercoagulability.
    A Medline search of the literature revealed limited previous reports of myocardial infarction due to premature coronary artery disease as the first manifestation in SLE.
     
  8. Title: Left subclavian vein occlusion after pacemaker insertion : images in cardiology
    Authors: Vyselaar, J.R.; Michael, K.A.; Nolan, R.L.; Baranchuk, A.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 155
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    Abstract: Subclavian vein thrombosis after pacemaker lead insertion is a well-described complication of pacemaker insertion. It is usually asymptomatic due to the presence of collateral venous flow but the clinical presentation is varied. This index case illustrates a typical clinical scenario and the value of computerised tomography (CT) in providing adequate delineation of the venous pathology.
     
  9. Title: Statin-induced myopathy : cardiovascular prescriber
    Authors: Gounden, R.; Blockman, M.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 156-157
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    Abstract: It was traditionally thought that, as a major adverse effect, the HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors or statins increase the risk of muscular disorders, ranging from myalgia to myopathy and even rhabdomyoloysis. Myalgia is defined as muscular pain without significant elevations of creatine kinase (less than 10 times the upper limit of normal), whereas myopathy is the presence of muscular symptoms associated with an increase in creatine kinase (CK) greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal. Rhabdomyolosis is characterised by a CK concentration of greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal, with evidence of renal impairment, or an absolute CK of 10 000 IU/l.
     
  10. Title: STRADIVARIUS : a brave trial aimed at clarifying benefits of rimonabant therapy : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 158-159
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    Abstract: The result of the STRADIVARIUS trial of rimonabant in abdominally obese patients with coronary artery disease has shown benefit in overall cardiovascular risk factor reduction, without clearly achieving statistically significant reduction in percentage atheroma volume, although total atheroma volume was reduced.
     
  11. Title: PERISCOPE : pioglitazone offers the right cluster of effects to confer benefit in type 2 diabetes : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 159, 162
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    Abstract: The PERISCOPE study compared the effects of pioglitazone versus glimepiride on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with established type 2 diabetes, and showed that pioglitazone has a cluster of beneficial effects, according to Dr Steve Nissen, chairman, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic and lead investigator of the study.
     
  12. Title: Combination therapy with amlodipine / benazapril (CCB / ACEI) superior to hydrochlorothiazide / benazapril in high-risk hypertensive patients : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 163
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    Abstract: The ACCOMPLISH trial of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an ACE inhibitor in a fixed-dose combination versus an ACE inhibitor plus thiazide diuretic in high-risk hypertensive patients was stopped early following compelling benefit in the CCB / ACE inhibitor arm of the study.
     
  13. Title: Secondary stroke prevention set to benefit from PRoFESS trial : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 165
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    Abstract: The first head-to-head study of two antiplatelet regimens recommended for the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke, conducted in the PRoFESS study, demonstrate that the risks of recurrent stroke or the composite risk of stroke, myocardial infarction or vascular death are very similar with either extended-release dipyridamole (ER-DP) plus aspirin or clopidogrel in patients with non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke.
     
  14. Title: Early initiation of BP lowering with telmisartan after a stroke : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 166
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    Abstract: Initiation of blood pressure lowering with telmisartan early after a stroke (at an average of 15 days), with a relatively short duration of therapy of 2.5 years, showed a non-statistically similar rate of stroke or other major vascular events compared to the placebo arm, according to the results of the PRoFESS trial, presented at the 17th European Stroke conference in Nice, France.
     
  15. Title: ENHANCE results : a surrogate trial that impacts beyond size and scope : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 166-168
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    Abstract: The negative results from the ENHANCE trial of ezetimibe with regard to reduction of intima-media thickness in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic patients provoked intense debate during a special session on the trial at the recent ACC meeting.
     
  16. Title: Antihypertensive treatment in the very elderly shows significant mortality benefit : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 169, 171
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    Abstract: A challenging trial of hypertension in the very elderly (HYVET), which took almost 10 years to complete, has provided proof that antihypertensive therapy in older patients saves lives. Therapy using low-dose indapamide (1.5 mg sustained release daily) with added perindopril in 73% of patients in the treated group resulted in significant reduction of rates of death from any cause, and nearly significant benefit for the risk of fatal or non-fatal stroke.
     
  17. Title: Fenofibrate set to benefit from new research on its active metabolite, fenofibric acid : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 171-172
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    Abstract: Interest in fenofibrate, the only fibrate with outcomes data showing significant reduction in macro- and microvascular damage in type 2 diabetic dyslipidaemia, is increasing as a result of recent trials of a new molecule, fenofibric acid, which is an active metabolite of fenofibrate.
     
  18. Title: DUAAL : atorvastatin provided an unexpectedly potent heart benefit in patients with chronic stable angina : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 174
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    Abstract: Results from the new study DUAAL, released at the ACC 2008 meeting, have shown the unexpected benefit of statin therapy in patients with chronic stable angina.
     
  19. Title: Symposium : Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sudden Death : from Genes to Prevention : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 175
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    Abstract: The Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research at the University of Cape Town Medical School is inaugurating its cardiovascular genetics laboratory. In recognition of this, a symposium will be held in Cape Town on 15-16 August 2008.
     
  20. Title: Visit to North Africa to stimulate interest in CVJA in francophone countries : cardio news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 19, Issue 3, May / Jun
    Published: 2008
    Pages: 176
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    Abstract: The Cardiovascular Journal of Africa (CVJA) was pleased to sponsor a visit by Prof Sinclair Wynchank to French-speaking North Africa to promote the Journal's willingness to accept scientific articles of merit in French. The articles will be peer reviewed by French speakers and, if accepted, the articles will be published in English with full-text French versions available on Pubmed.
Prevalence and predictive value of electrocardiographic abnormalities in pulmonary hypertension: evidence from the Pan-African Pulmonary Hypertension Cohort (PAPUCO) study

Published: 11 October 2017
 
 
Unusually aggressive immature neo-intimal hyperplasia causing in-stent restenosis

Published: 10 October 2017
 
 
Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia

Published: 31 August 2017
 
 
The effect of iloprost and sildenafil, alone and in combination, on myocardial ischaemia and nitric oxide and irisin levels

Published: 31 August 2017
 
 
The aetiology of cardiovascular disease: a role for mitochondrial DNA?

Published: 25 August 2017
 
 
The effect of lifestyle interventions on maternal body composition during pregnancy in developing countries: a systematic review

Published: 24 August 2017
 
 
Red cell distribution width is correlated with extensive coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

Published: 23 August 2017
 
 
A survey of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors among university employees: a single institutional study

Published: 15 August 2017
 
 
A comparative study on the cardiac morphology and vertical jump height of adolescent black South African male and female amateur competitive footballers

Published: 15 August 2017
 
 
Efficacy of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a sub-aortic aneurysm case

Published: 29 June 2017
 
 
A preliminary review of warfarin toxicity in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa

Published: 21 June 2017
 
 
Effects of age on systemic inflamatory response syndrome and results of coronary bypass surgery

Published: 23 May 2017
 
 
Clinical profile, management and outcomes of patients with pulmonary embolism: a retrospective tertiary centre study in Angola

Published: 17 May 2017
 
 
Role of melatonin in glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes from insulin-resistant Wistar rats

Published: 17 May 2017
 
 
Atorvastatin inhibits cholesterol-induced caspase-3 cleavage through down-regulation of p38 and up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the rat carotid artery

Published: 10 May 2017
 
 
Relationship between coronary tortuosity and plateletcrit coronary tortuosity and plateletcrit

Published: 26 April 2017
 
 
Electrocardiographic abnormalities in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in south-east Nigeria

Published: 24 March 2017
 
 
Medication adherence among cardiac patients in Khartoum State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study

Published: 24 March 2017
 
 
Prevalence of rheumatic valvular heart disease in Rwandan school children: echocardiographic evaluation using the World Heart Federation criteria

Published: 1 March 2017
 
 
Factors affecting interest in cardiothoracic surgery among junior surgical residents in Nigeria

Published: 1 March 2017
 
 
New World’s old disease: cardiac hydatid disease and surgical principles

Published: 20 February 2017
 
 
Right ventricular strain as predictor of pulmonary complications in patients with femur fracture

Published: 01 February 2017
 
 
Atrial myxoma: a rare cause of hemiplegia in children

Published: 09 December 2016
 
 
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