CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA: VOLUME  22, ISSUE 5, OCTOBER 2011
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  1. Title: From the editor's desk
    Authors: Brink, A.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 233
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    Abstract: For the first time, the Cardiovascular Journal of Africa has been evaluated for impact factor in the new Journal Citation Report of the ISI.
     
  2. Title: Raynaud's phenomenon : letter to the editor
    Authors: Solomons, H.D.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 233
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    Abstract: Raynaud's phenomenon is a disorder, causing discolouration of the fingers. It is thought to be related to vasospasm. It can also affect the toes and other areas. The nails become brittle with longitudinal ridges. The condition was named after Maurice Raynaud (1834-1881).
     
  3. Title: CEPHEUS SA : a South African survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Raal, Frederick; Schamroth, Colin; Blom, Dirk; Marx, Jan; Rajput, Mangoo; Haus, Matthias; Hussain, Razia; Cassim, Fatima; Nortje, Michelle; Vandenhoven, Guy; Temmerman, Anne-Marie
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 234-240
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2011-044
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2011-044
    Abstract: Aim: The aim of the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) was to evaluate the current use and efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), and to identify possible patient and physician characteristics associated with failure, if any, to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets.
    Methods: The survey was conducted in 69 study centres in South Africa and recruited consecutive consenting patients who had been prescribed LLDs for at least three months. One visit was scheduled for data collection, including fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels. Physicians and patients completed questionnaires regarding their knowledge, awareness and perceptions of hypercholesterolaemia and the treatment thereof.
    Results: Of the 3 001 patients recruited, 2 996 were included in the final analyses. The mean age was 59.4 years, and 47.5% were female. Only 60.5 and 52.3% of patients on LLDs for at least three months achieved the LDL-C target recommended by the NCEP ATP III/2004 updated NCEP ATP III and the Fourth JETF/South African guidelines, respectively. Being male, older than 40 years, falling into the lower-risk categories, compliance with the medication regimen, and patient knowledge that the LDL-C goal had been reached, were associated with the highest probability of attaining LDL-C goals.
    Conclusion: The results of this survey highlight the sub-optimal lipid control achieved in many South African patients taking lipid-lowering therapy.

  4. Title: The R563Q mutation of the epithelial sodium channel beta-subunit is associated with hypertension : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Jones, E.S.W.; Owen, E.P.; Davidson, J.S.; Van der Merwe, L.; Rayner, B.L.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 241-244
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2010-084
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2010-084
    Abstract: Background: A high prevalence of the R563Q mutation of the epithelial sodium channel β-subunit has been reported in South African hypertensives compared with unrelated normotensive controls. To delineate the effects of this mutation against a more uniform genetic background, this study investigated the association of the mutation with hypertension within affected kindreds.
    Methods: Forty-five index patients and members of their kindreds were studied. Blood pressure, serum potassium and the presence of the R563Q mutation were determined.
    Results: Of the 136 individuals studied, 89 were heterozygous for the R563Q mutation and 47 homozygous RR. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the R563Q heterozygous group (p = 0.005) after adjusting for gender, race, age and kindred membership. Of the R563Q heterozygous subjects, 71 (80%) had hypertension, while 17 (36%) of the R563Q homozygous RR subjects were hypertensive. Six R563Q heterozygous subjects had hypokalaemia and one R563Q homozygous RR subject had hypokalaemia, but the difference was not statistically significant. Two heterozygous patients had Liddle's syndrome, both occurring during pregnancy.
    Conclusion: The R563Q mutation of β-ENaC is associated with hypertension within affected kindreds, but does not usually cause the full Liddle's syndrome phenotype.

  5. Title: Echocardiographic findings in children with Marfan syndrome : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Ozdemir, Osman; Olgunturk, Rana; Kula, Serdar; Tunaoglu, Fatma Sedef
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 245-248
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2010-085
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2010-085
    Abstract: Background: The typical cardiac manifestations of Marfan syndrome are aortic regurgitation with progressive dilatation of the aortic root, which may cause dissection and rupture of the ascending aorta, mitral valve prolapse and mitral valve regurgitation. In this study, we aimed to show echocardiographic findings in 11 patients with Marfan syndrome.
    Methods: Diagnosis of Marfan syndrome was based on the Ghent criteria. All patients had a full echocardiographic evaluation. During the evaluation, we investigated the presence of mitral valve prolapse, mitral valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, dilatation of the aortic root, and aortic regurgitation.
    Results: Eleven patients were diagnosed as Marfan syndrome(seven male, four female, age 4-14 years). All had mitral valve prolapse (nine with mitral valve regurgitation). Among these 11 patients, seven had accompanying tricuspid valve prolapse, six had dilatation of the aortic root and two had aortic regurgitation.
    Conclusion: Eleven patients in our clinic were diagnosed as Marfan syndrome since they had distinct characteristics of marfanoid phenotype. Echocardiographic evaluation of these patients showed marked heart valve involvement. In Marfan syndrome, it is known that the aortic valve is affected following mitral valve involvement. In our experience, aortic root dilatation is less common. However, particular attention should be given to following up aortic root status with noninvasive echocardiography to institute measures to prevent complications.

  6. Title: The relationship between indices of iron status and selected anthropometric cardiovascular disease risk markers in an African population : the THUSA study : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Ozdemir, O.; Olgunturk, R.; Kula, S.; Tunaogl, F.S.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 249-256
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2011-015
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2011-015
    Abstract: There is evidence that certain indices of iron status are associated with anthropometric measures, which are used independently as markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined whether this association exists in an African population. The study was a cross-sectional comparative study that examined a total of 1 854 African participants. Ferritin was positively associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), percentage body fat and subscapular skinfold thickness. Serum ferritin concentration was higher in the high-WHR category than the normal-WHR category for both genders. Additionally, WC and WHR increased with increasing ferritin concentrations in both genders. Serum iron was lower in the obese than the normal-weight and pre-obese women only. In this population-based study, increased serum ferritin concentrations associated positively with increased WHR and WC, indicating that individuals or populations at risk of iron overload as defined by high serum ferritin concentrations may be at a greater risk of developing CVD.

  7. Title: Diabetes diary for 2011 - 2012 congresses
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 256
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    Abstract: Diabetes diary for 2011 - 2012 congresses

  8. Title: Effect of short-term isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in middle-aged females : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Mortimer, J.; Mckune, A.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 257-260
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2010-090
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2010-090
    Abstract: Objective: To determine the effect of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged women (47.88 ± 1.8 years).
    Methods: Isometric handgrip training was performed over five consecutive days. In each session, the treatment group (n = 9) performed four isometric contractions of 45 seconds each at 30% of their maximal grip strength. The control group (n = 9) sat for 15 minutes without exercising, for five consecutive days. Resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using a two-factor ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05).
    Results: Blood pressure readings were reduced in both groups (SBP: p = 0.036; DBP: p = 0.0079), however there was no interaction effect for SBP or DBP.
    Conclusions: The findings suggest that 15 minutes of sitting per day for five consecutive days is just as effective as isometric handgrip training for reducing BP levels. Future research is required to investigate the optimal isometric handgrip training stimulus required to reduce resting BP levels.

  9. Title: Global cardiovascular risk profiles of untreated hypertensives in an urban, developing community in Africa : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Maseko, M.J.; Norton, G.R.; Majane, O.H.; Molebatsi, N.; Woodiwiss, A.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 261-267
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2010-094
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2010-094
    Abstract: Introduction: Blood pressure (BP) control in people of African descent is poor, largely because of a lack of treatment. Although the requirements for immediate initiation of antihypertensive drug therapy are defined by global cardiovascular risk, the global cardiovascular risk profiles of untreated hypertensives at a community level are uncertain.
    Aim: To identify the distribution of global cardiovascular risk profiles of untreated hypertensives in an urban, developing community of African descent in South Africa.
    Methods: As part of the African Programme on Genes in Hypertension, we assessed nurse-derived clinic BP (the mean of five standardised BP values obtained according to guidelines), current antihypertensive therapy, and total cardiovascular risk in 1 029 participants older than 16 years of age from randomly selected nuclear families from the South West Township of Gauteng (SOWETO).
    Results: Approximately 46% of participants had systolic/diastolic BP values ≥ 140/90 mmHg and ∼23% of participants were hypertensives not receiving antihypertensive medication. Approximately 12% of untreated hypertensives had a high added risk and ∼18% a very high added risk (6.7% of the total sample). In untreated hypertensives, in contrast to the absence of severe hypertension and diabetes mellitus in those with lower risk profiles, a high cardiovascular risk profile in this group was characterised by severe hypertension in ∼52% and diabetes mellitus in ∼33%. Based on a high added risk carrying at least a 20% chance and a very high added risk at least a 30% chance of a cardiovascular event in 10 years, this translates into 1 740 events per 100 000 of the population within 10 years, events that could be prevented through antihypertensive drug therapy.
    Conclusions: In an urban, developing community of African ancestry, a significant proportion (6.7%) of people may have untreated hypertension and a global cardiovascular risk profile that suggests a need for antihypertensive drug therapy. Cardiovascular risk in this group is driven largely by the presence of severe hypertension or diabetes mellitus.

  10. Title: Cardiovascular diary for 2011 - 2012 congresses
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 267
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    Abstract: Cardiovascular diary for 2011 - 2012 congresses
     
  11. Title: Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta in two children with pulmonary atresia, subaortic ventricular septal defect and right-sided major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Pepeta, L.; Takawira, F.F.; Cilliers, A.M.; Adams, P.E.; Ntsinjana, N.H.; Mitchell, B.J.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 268-271
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2010-081
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2010-081
    Abstract: We report two rare cases of an anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (AOLPA) from the ascending aorta, associated with pulmonary atresia, a ventricular septal defect and a left aortic arch. The cases are unusual because an AOLPA is more commonly associated with a right aortic arch, and it is more usual for the right pulmonary artery to originate anomalously from the ascending aorta. The pulmonary blood supply to the right lung in both patients was absent and provided instead by major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries, which were stenosed at multiple levels. The AOLPA in both patients originated from the postero-lateral aspect of the ascending aorta just distal to the sino-tubular junction. Only one patient showed the more common association of an unusual aortic arch branching pattern in the form of an anomalous right subclavian artery. Neither patient was in heart failure and the chest X-ray in both revealed differential pulmonary perfusion with prominent vascularity of the left lung. Cardiac catheterisation showed systemic pressures within the anomalous left pulmonary artery. Karyotyping revealed normal chromosomes, and fluorescent in-situ hybridisation done in one patient was negative for chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. Both patients have been managed conservatively.
     
  12. Title: Isolated tricuspid valve prolapse : identification using two- and three-dimensional echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Kocabay, Gonenc; Sirma, Dicle; Mert, Meral; Tigen, Kursat
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 272-273
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2011-006
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2011-006
    Abstract: We present a case of isolated prolapse of the tricuspid anterior leaflet in an asymptomatic 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a routine check up. We performed two-and three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We found three-dimensional TEE a useful, non-invasive tool that can provide additional information to two-dimensional echocardiography in the assessment of tricuspid valve prolapse.
     
  13. Title: Double-chambered right ventricle : an uncommon congenital heart disease. Case report and literature review : cardiovascular topics
    Authors: Animasahun, B.A.; Ekure, E.N.; Njokanma, O.F.
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 274-277
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    DOI Number: 10.5830/CVJA-2010-068
    DOI Citation Reference Link: dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2010-068
    Abstract: A double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital heart disease and an uncommon cause of congestive cardiac failure. An anomalous muscle band divides the right ventricle into two cavities, causing variable degrees of obstruction. Echocardiography is considered a useful method for the diagnosis of this pathology, especially in children.
    An eight-year-old patient with a small ventricular septal defect (VSD) and double-chambered right ventricle presented with a history of palpitations, easy fatigability and recurrent fever. On presentation, she had features of congestive cardiac failure. A complete diagnosis was initially missed with transthoracic two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography but later obtained based on transthoracic 2-D echocardiography with Doppler facility. This was confirmed with cardiac catheterisation. The patient was referred for surgical correction, which was successful.
    Due to the rarity of this condition and the consequences of missing the diagnosis, we present this case in order to highlight the rarity of this congenital heart disease in childhood.
     
  14. Title: South Africa's PACE is a winner of Boehringer-Ingelheim's international atrial fibrillation awareness programme : cardio news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 278
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    Abstract: PACE (Prevent Arrhythmic Cardiac Events) outpaced some 200 global applicants in the Boehringer-Ingelheim Atrial Fibrillation Awareness Campaign to win R500 000 (50 000 Euros) for an AF awareness programme in South Africa. They won this award in the Silver category and were the most highly ranked winners outside Europe.
     
  15. Title: Medtronic news from European Society of Cardiology congress, Paris, September 2011 : industry news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 279
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    Abstract: Medtronic Inc. has received CE (Conformite Europeenne) Mark for its 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve® System, the only transcatheter aortic valve available in the world that can treat without surgery, patients with larger valve openings (up to 29 mm). It is the largest transcatheter valve available and, because it can be compressed into a small delivery system, is deployed through the same 18-Fr (less than ¼ inch or approx 6 mm in diameter) delivery system as smaller CoreValve sizes.
     
  16. Title: Remote care of patients with ICD
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 279-280
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    Abstract: The REMOTE follow-up of patients with ICDs appears to be safe, and a large French trial found no significant difference in outcome between patients who were tele-monitored and those who had conventional check ups in the clinic. However, the trial failed to confirm the non-inferiority of the new technology.
     
  17. Title: Expanded coverage for warfarin patients in the USA monitoring clotting time at home : industry news
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 280
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    Abstract: Medicare will now cover and pay for meter training, equipment and supplies for all long-term warfarin users in the USA who monitor their prothrombin time at home with a portable handheld meter. The change opens the door to greater convenience and potentially fewer complications for a broader spectrum of anticoagulation patients.
     
  18. Title: Namibia becomes first country in Africa to launch dabigatran etexilate for atrial fibrillation : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 283
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    Abstract: On 1 August 2011, Namibia became the first African country to make available Boehringer Ingelheim's novel oral blood thinner, Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate), the first real breakthrough in anticoagulation therapy in over 50 years. The Namibian Medicines Control Council has approved the prophylactic use of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common type of arrhythmia.
     
  19. Title: New insights and results from the RE-LY trial : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 284, 286
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    Abstract: The RE-LY trial with dabigatran has provided clinicians worldwide with a new benchmark standard for anticoagulation and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. This view was presented at the 2011 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress by Dr Gregory Lip, professor of cardiovascular medicine at the University of Birmingham, who is well placed to evaluate clinical expectations for these new agents.

  20. Title: European Society of Cardiology congress 2011 : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 287
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    Abstract: The FDA's Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs advisory committee has now voted nine to two (with one abstention) in favour of recommending rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, for prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation.
     
  21. Title: New ESC guidelines for acute coronary syndromes (NSTEMI) : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 288
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    Abstract: Representatives of the Cardiovascular Journal of Africa attending the ESC in Paris interviewed Prof Robert F Storey, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, a member of the ESC task force who worked on the recently released guidelines.

  22. Title: Heart rate now a risk factor for cardiovascular disease : drug trends in cardiology
    From: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol 22, Issue 5, Sep / Oct
    Published: 2011
    Pages: 291-292
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    Abstract: SHIfT echocardiographic study supports ivabradine's heart rate-lowering benefits
    Comments from South African experts
A preliminary review of warfarin toxicity in a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa

Published: 21 June 2017
 
Perceptions of radiation safety training among interventionalists in South Africa

Published: 24 May 2017
 
Effects of age on systemic inflamatory response syndrome and results of coronary bypass surgery

Published: 23 May 2017
 
Pilot study of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in northern and southern Cameroonians

Published: 17 May 2017
 
Clinical profile, management and outcomes of patients with pulmonary embolism: a retrospective tertiary centre study in Angola

Published: 17 May 2017
 
Role of melatonin in glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes from insulin-resistant Wistar rats

Published: 17 May 2017
 
Atorvastatin inhibits cholesterol-induced caspase-3 cleavage through down-regulation of p38 and up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the rat carotid artery

Published: 10 May 2017
 
Relationship between coronary tortuosity and plateletcrit coronary tortuosity and plateletcrit

Published: 26 April 2017
 
Clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease seen at a tertiary hospital setting in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Published: 20 April 2017
 
 
Electrocardiographic abnormalities in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in south-east Nigeria

Published: 24 March 2017
 
 
Medication adherence among cardiac patients in Khartoum State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study

Published: 24 March 2017
 
 
An unusual case of aorta–right atrial tunnel with windsock aneurysm: imaging, diagnosis and treatment

Published: 15 March 2017
 
 
Prevalence of rheumatic valvular heart disease in Rwandan school children: echocardiographic evaluation using the World Heart Federation criteria

Published: 1 March 2017
 
 
Factors affecting interest in cardiothoracic surgery among junior surgical residents in Nigeria

Published: 1 March 2017
 
 
New World’s old disease: cardiac hydatid disease and surgical principles

Published: 20 February 2017
 
 
The prevalence and radiological findings of pulmonary embolism in HIV-positive patients referred for computed tomography pulmonary angiography in the Western Cape of South Africa

Published: 15 February 2017
 
 
Right ventricular strain as predictor of pulmonary complications in patients with femur fracture

Published: 01 February 2017
 
 
Atrial myxoma: a rare cause of hemiplegia in children

Published: 09 December 2016
 
 
Telmisartan decreases microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following coronary artery bypass grafting

Published: 10 November 2016
 
 
Left ventricular haematoma mimicking lateral wall myocardial infarction secondary to percutaneous coronary intervention

Published: 10 November 2016
 
 
Symptom-to-balloon time and myocardial blush grade are predictors of left ventricular remodelling after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention

Published: 27 October 2016
 
 
Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on North African children’s heart rate and oxy-haemoglobin saturation at rest and during sub-maximal exercise

Published: 21 October 2016
 
 
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors in ischaemic heart disease

Published: 09 September 2016
 
 
Prevalence of selected cardiometabolic risk factors among adults in urban and semi-urban hospitals in four sub-Saharan African countries

Published: 22 August 2016
 
 
Assessment of indirect inflammatory markers in patients with myocardial bridging

Published: 19 August 2016
 
 
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