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CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA • Volume 28, No 4, July/August 2017



Echocardiographic images of EMF were divided into

the following subgroups: images of basic echocardiographic

features (covered in Figs 1–3), images of additional

echocardiographic details (shown in Fig. 4) and images of

new echocardiographic features (shown and described in Figs

5 and 6).

Fig. 1.

Basic echocardiographic features of left ventricular EMF. A and B, apical four-chamber view. The huge left atrium with apical

and LV wall fibrosis, obliterated LV and mitral regurgitation (MR) (B), are the characteristic features of left ventricular EMF.



Fig. 2.

Basic echocardiographic features of advanced left ventricular EMF. Images from a 42-year-old female who presented with

intractable heart failure. A is a subcostal view showing the typically huge left atrium occupying half the cardiac size. B is an

AP four-chamber view showing apical fibrosis extending to the septum and ventricular walls, leading to severe obliteration

of the left ventricular cavity.