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CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNAL OF AFRICA • Volume 28, No 4, July/August 2017




This descriptive study that discusses the clinical and

echocardiographic features of EMF in Sudan is not intended to

redefine the pathognomonic echocardiographic features of the

disease, which have been well described in previous works.


The main objective was to determine the current frequency of

EMF in Sudan, as the last report on the disease dates back more

than 40 years.

Fig. 3.

Right ventricular (RV) and biventricular EMF. A (AP4) showing EMF of the RV; note the apical fibrosis engulfing the modera-

tor band, fibrosis of the anterior interventricular septum, dilated RA and obliterated RV. B (AP5) shows biventricular EMF.



Fig. 4.

Layering. A is a short-axis view of a patient with advanced EMF showing layering of the thickened endocardium with the

myocardium and pericardium. The posterior mitral valve leaflet (MV) is seen tethered to the endocardium. B is M-mode

showing the distinct layers of the posterior wall with thickened endocardium and myocardium. A thickened pericardium with

effusions can be seen peripherally.